Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure. The name of the mineral has been known in Russian since the 15th century that is derived from the Turkic and Iranian-speaking peoples (Turkish "elmas", Arabic "لماس", Persian "الماس"), where it came from the ancient Greek "ἀδάμας" - "indestructible, irresistible".

Chemistry: С;

Crystal system: Cubic, hexoctahedral crystal class (point symmetry group);

Color: Typically colorless, with yellow, brown and gray hues, black. Less often brown, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, blue. Very rare varieties with the effect of color change.

Color is due to the structural defects in the diamond lattice, including macroscopic phases called inclusions (nitrogen, hydrogen, boron, aluminum, etc.).

Identification properties

Physical properties
Mohs hardness: 10
Density: 3.50-3.52 g/cm3
Cleavage: Perfect on (111)
Fracture: conchoidal
Optical properties
Optical character: isotropic, sometimes anomalous anisotropic
Refractive Index: 2.417 – 2.421
Birefringence: none, anomalous – up to 0.002
Pleochroism: none
Dispertion: 0.044(BG)
Luster: Adamantine

Inclusions and structural inhomogeneities

Mineral inclusions