Enter the number
10:00 - 19:00
open 10 am - 7 pm
Saturday and Sunday
laboratory is closed


Amber is the name of a lithified organogenic formation - a fossil resin of the superfamily (“department”, according to O. Martirosyan) of amber-like resins. Takde traditionally refers to amber fossil resins that do not contain succinic acid, but structurally close to amber, possessing similar technological properties.
The Russian name "amber" comes from the Lithuanian name of the stone - "gintaras".
Varieties of amber used in the manufacture of jewelry and jewelry, refer to the jewelry and gemstones. The source of the formation of amber was the resinous discharge of conifers of the Araucaria, Pine and Cypress families.
Amber, like other fossil resins, is currently classified as a mineraloid from the point of view of mineral matter, but still there are publications in which amber belongs to minerals of organogenic origin.
A clear separation of amber and fossil resins, which are not amber, is possible only according to infrared spectrometry data.
At present, amber is attributed to: succinite, gedano-succinite, rumenite, burmit, shraufit, simetit, bekkerit, stantinit, as well as resins close to them — cheavinit, tsedarit, and others.

Color: yellow of various shades to brown (in oxidized and bituminous varieties). Often found whitish color due to the abundance of small gas bubbles in amber. Blue, green and other amber-colored stains are caused by microinclusions of a foreign mineral substance (for example, glauconite).

Identification properties

Physical properties
Mohs hardness: 2-2,5
Density: 1,05 – 1,10 g/cm3
Fracture: conchoidal
Optical properties
Optical character: amorphous
Refractive Index: 1,539-1,545
Birefringence: none, abnormal birefringence observed
Dichroism: none
Luster: glass, matte, resin
Transparency: transparent to opaque

Inclusions and structural inhomogeneities

Gem basic treatments

Impregnation Increased transparency
Impregnation of porous varieties Color change
Surface staining Color change
Diffusion treatment (thermochemical staining) Color change
Heating Color change
Heating Increased transparency
Heating Enhance decorative qualities
Agglomeration Getting large blocks

Inclusions and structural inhomogeneities


Synthetic or Imitation gem materials

Synthetic analogs of amber are not produced.

As imitations of amber are used:

  • glass and ceramic compounds of artificial origin;
  • polymeric compositions of artificial origin;
  • modern resins;
  • fossil resins ("immature" and retinite-like);
  • composite compositions from polymer and small-sized amber fractions.