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What is a gemstone?

Nowadays the term of "gemstone" is regulated by Federal Law No. 41-FZ of March 26, 1998 (as amended on July 3, 2016) "On Precious Metals and Gemstones". The law reads: "gemstones are a mineral crystal such as natural diamond, emerald, ruby, sapphire and alexandrite, or organic such as natural pearls in raw (natural) and treated form, or mineraloid such as unique amber formations are therefore considered to be gemstones as well, and equated in the order established by the Government of the Russian Federation. Materials of an artificial origin with the properties of gemstones are not defined as gemstones".
For the first time the term "gemstone" was used in the legislation of Russia regarding the adoption of the Resolution of the Supreme Economic Council of the RSFSR of February 22, 1918 "On the main gold committee and on the order of application of the SEC resolution on gold and platinum", where "diamonds and cut diamonds" and "other gemstones".
In the classification of jewelry stones, the term "gemstones" is introduced by Sobolevsky V.I. in 1971, associating them with the concept of "gems".